The Anatomy Of A Bug/Issue Reproduction Script

February 18th, 2010 § 6 comments § permalink

“There is a problem with component Fooey-Bar-Bazzy, I think it’s related to Nanny-Nanny-Neener. Please Fix Now.” If you’ve written a bug/issue report like that in the past with no other details- shame on you! This may come as a shock, but as great as some developers might be, they cannot read minds. Each has their own way of coding, custom working environment as well as their own favorite tools; aside from variances in coding standards and best practices. Some could argue these little intricacies are outside of the realm of coding standards and best practices and that these are the differences between good, great, and even terrible developers. Each developer has a different opinion on how particular applications, libraries of code, or even features of a particular project are expected to behave in practice. These varying expectations are why bugs/issues exist. No one developer producing code for mass consumption can anticipate every possible use case. Additionally, no one developer can replicate every environment surrounding every pre-conceived use case. There are simply not enough resources at hand; be it in the form of a variety of systems or simply the number of hours in a developers day.

With that in mind, I write this as a plea to all developers to be good to the maintainer of code you use. In the simplest form of advice, I suggest that before you click submit on that bug/issue report form, ask yourself two questions: “Did I do enough due-diligence in determining if this is really a bug?” AND “If I got this bug report, would I be able to reproduce it.. let alone understand it?”. If the answer is YES to both of those questions. Go ahead- click submit. If your answer is no, you’ve got some more work to do.

Some Tenets Of the Good Reproduction Script

In this short article, I’d like to outline a few details of what should go into a bug/issue report. These are some simple guidelines that should be considered when you write a bug/issue report. It should be noted that this list is by all means not exhaustive, but if you at least consider the list below before clicking submit- you’ll make a code maintainers day. I promise.

  1. List Out All Assumptions Clearly

    PHP specifically is well known for being a “glue language”. What that means is that PHP is generally sitting between multiple pieces of software that is, of course, not PHP. This means that these pieces of software each have their own set of configurations and environments that PHP is “gluing” together. That being the case, any assumptions about non-PHP assumptions should be clearly listed in the reproduction script. This could include database flavor and its settings, a PHP library component, or perhaps a specific version of an extension that is being used and the underlying unmanaged/c-based library your PHP environment is consuming.

  2. Use The Shortest Possible Use Case

    As tempting as it is to copy a script from your project and paste it into the bug/issue submission box, don’t do this. If you are truly invested in seeing the bug/issue fixed in a timely fashion, take the time to create a small reproduction script. In this script should be the absolute minimal amount of code to demonstrate to another human that there is indeed a problem that needs solving. By keeping the script minimal and short, you are also removing any other distractions from the script that otherwise might confuse the maintainer and prevent him from fully understanding the real problem.

  3. Use Generic Yet Meaningful Names

    It cannot be stressed enough that any non-meaningful names should be discouraged at all costs. And as mentioned above, you want to have as few distractions as possible in the use case. For example, supplying your database table of customers, with first_name, last_name, etc has virtually nothing to do with the problem at hand. In these cases where table and column names are ancillary to the actual problem, they should be generalized: a table named ‘foo’, and columns named ‘bar1′ and ‘bar2′. Unless …

    … the variable name can add context to the problem. What does this mean? $customer would be bad; but $faultyTableObject is good. The latter naming makes it easy for the maintainer to focus on the variable that need to be tracked leading up to the problem.

  4. Document Both What You Expect, And The Actual Result

    Claiming something is broken without offering what you expect and what the actual result is offers next to nothing to the maintainer attempting to fix the problem. Generally speaking, most use cases that end up being bugs/issues are outside of the original preconceived use cases for the actual component. That said, the maintainer is going to need the context of the use case that you’ve found to be problematic. It also helps to point out any existing documentation that describe the more well-defined uses cases, and how your use case relates and/or deviates from those already defined use cases.

  5. Make The Reproduction Script As Generic As Possible

    Perhaps this is redundant, but it’s important to know the minimal requirements for reproducing a bug/issue. You are not expected to be an expert on how to fix the actual problem, but you should do your own due-diligence in order to hand the problem off to the maintainer. It’s already been said to “List out all assumptions clearly”, but it is just as important to peel off any specific pieces of the problem that are not directly part of the problem.

    This concept can best be described by example. While MySQL is a widely available database platform, SQLite is widely known as the easiest to use and most portable database platform, at least in the PHP runtime. If you find a problem while using mysql, but it’s clear it can be replicated using SQLite, use SQLite. SQLite is built into PHP by default, and in a single script, you can create a memory based database and its schema in just a few lines of code.

    Sometimes a issue cannot be described in a single script. This is ok. This would be the case if, for example, you found an issue in a larger system, like Zend Frameworks MVC layer. In this case, it makes sense that you need to provide a minimal ZF project to demonstrate the issue. In these cases, make sure to again, use a few files and as little code as possible to demonstrate the issue. Also, in the spirit of using generic code, ensure to make all file system paths relative. This will help the maintainer get up and running with the problematic project in a minimal amount of time, with minimal configuration.

A Reproduction Script By Example

The following is a reproduction script I have written based on an issue (ZF-3709) provided to Zend Framework in our issue tracker. I chose this issue to write a reproduction for because it offers the ability to talk about how one might go about describing the environment, more specifically what the database should look like in order to replicate the problem.

(This script can also be found at

To the best of my ability, this script passes both of my earlier questions: “Yes, I did enough due-diligence in determining if this is really a bug.” AND “Yes, if I got this bug report, would I be able to reproduce it and understand it.”

A Few Considerations

This above script does not have unit tests, nor does it represent a patch to the existing framework. While that would be the most ideal, that sets the bar much too high for people to report worthwhile issues. The consumers of the code are not expected to be experts on the actual issue at hand, or even how to write valid unit tests that fully exercise a feature or bug. Ultimately, as a code maintainer, I simply want to be able to see the issue you are attempting to describe.

If you’d like to go above and beyond the standard reproduction script, you might also considering offering lines of code that you feel might be problematic. What that allows is maintainers to set breakpoints at specific locations and really drill down into the offending code.

I hope this helps developers understand what is expected of them as they file issue reports on open source code they use. By following these guidelines you’ll be doing a service to the maintainer by making their life easier, and even your own since reproduction scripts offer quicker turn around time for issues over those that require in-depth research.

Where Am I?

You are currently browsing entries tagged with Quality Assurance at Ralph Schindler.